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    The treatment of cluster headache has evolved to include a handheld neuromodulation device and a monoclonal antibody in addition to more traditional agents. Galcanezumab is an approved treatment for episodic cluster headache. The non-invasive vagal nerve stimulator has been shown to be effective as a treatment for episodic cluster headache. Dedicated pituitary imaging may not be necessary with a normal MRI of the brain. Cluster headache is the most common trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgia, characterized by unilateral, frequent, debilitating attacks associated with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Attacks have a circadian and, often, seasonal pattern with periods of remission that can last months to years in episodic patients. Though a rare disease, an increasing number of studies have revealed novel targets for treatment. Treatment in cluster headache should focus on early intervention to reduce frequency of attacks and the length of the cycle, which improves outcomes and disability. Acute therapy is used to treat attacks, while bridging and preventive therapies are combined to reduce cycle length. Case 1: A 43-year-old man presents with the chief complaint of severe headaches. Upon general examination, he seems uncomfortable, agitated, and exhausted. He states that he hasn't "slept in over a week because of debilitating headaches." His headaches start around the same time every night: when he lays down to go to sleep. The pain is described as sharp, like a "hot poker" to his left eye. His partner has noticed that his eye droops and turns red when the pain starts. The attacks come on abruptly and prevent him from sleeping. The severe pain lasts 30 to 45 min, but he has mild-to-moderate pain that lingers for the rest of the night. He has seen his primary care physician, an allergist, and an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist before coming to see a neurologist. Similar headaches occurred last year during the month of October as well. On further questioning, he reports that these headache attacks have been occurring almost yearly for the past 7 years. Each year, these headaches come on as the weather is changing and occur on a nightly basis for about 3 to 4 weeks.


    Himanshu Suri, Jessica Ailani. Cluster Headache: A Review and Update in Treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience reports. 2021 May 05;21(7):31

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    PMID: 33948734

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