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    Mitochondrial genome has aseries of characteristics such as simple structure, no recombination, maternalinheritance, stable structure, fast evolution rate, and high copy number. Moreover, it is easy to be sequenced,contains high-resolution phylogenetic information, and exists in a wide rangeof taxa. Therefore, it is widely used in the study of biological phylogeny. Atpresent, phylogenetic studies focus mainly on D-loop region, cytochrome b gene,and protein-coding sequence. Phylogenetic studies using the mitochondrialcomplete sequence are rarely reported in yak. Therefore, the present studyaimed to construct phylogenetic tree using yak mitochondrial complete sequenceand compare the subsequent results with previous findings obtained usingpartial sequences. Complete mitochondrial sequences of five yakpopulations from Qinghai and Xinjiang were obtained. The mitotype diversity ofthe five populations was Xueduo yak (0.992 ± 0.015), Pamir yak (0.990 ± 0.014),Yushu yak (0.963 ± 0.033), Qilian yak (0.948 ± 0.036), and Huanhu yak (0.905 ±0.048), which showed a higher mitotype diversity compared with other breeds fromthe previous reports, including Jiulong yak, Maiwa yak, Zhongdian yak, andTianzhu yak. A total of 78 mitotypes were obtained from 111 individuals. Amongthese, Yushu yak, Huanhu yak, Xueduo yak, and Qilian yak all shared mitotypes,but the Pamir yak did not share mitotypes with these four populations.Phylogenetic analysis showed that yak populations were separable into threedistinct branches. The analysis identified a new phylogenetic branch containingboth wild and domestic yaks. The 155 mitotypes found in 206 individuals weredivided into 3 haplogroups by mitotype clustering. Thehaplogroup was not associated with the geographical distribution of yaks. Theyaks in the same population or the same ecological environment were distributedin different haplogroups. Among the threehaplogroups, haplogroup A and haplogroup B showed a star-shaped distribution ofmitotypes. The central mitotypes were widely distributed and had a highfrequency. Thegenetic diversity of yaks in Qinghai was high. Both domestic and wild yaks clusteredinto three branches.


    Xingdong Wang, Jie Pei, Pengjia Bao, Mengli Cao, Shaoke Guo, Rende Song, Weiru Song, Chunnian Liang, Ping Yan, Xian Guo. Mitogenomic diversity and phylogeny analysis of yak (Bos grunniens). BMC genomics. 2021 May 05;22(1):325

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    PMID: 33952215

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