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    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are emerging as promising therapeutic targets in cancer. As remnants of ancient retroviral infections, ERV-derived regulatory elements coordinate expression from gene networks, including those underpinning embryogenesis and immune cell function. ERV activation can promote an interferon response, a phenomenon termed viral mimicry. Although ERV expression is associated with cancer, and provisionally with autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, ERV-mediated inflammation is being explored as a way to sensitize tumors to immunotherapy. Here we review ERV co-option in development and innate immunity, the aberrant contribution of ERVs to tumorigenesis, and the wider biomedical potential of therapies directed at ERVs.


    Natasha Jansz, Geoffrey J Faulkner. Endogenous retroviruses in the origins and treatment of cancer. Genome biology. 2021 May 10;22(1):147

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    PMID: 33971937

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