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The use of pesticides to increase crop production has become one of the inevitable components of modern agriculture. Fipronil, a phenylpyrazoles insecticide, is one of the most widely used, systemic, broad-spectrum insecticides. Owing to its unique mode of action and selective toxicity, it was once regarded as safer alternatives to more toxic and persistent organochlorine insecticides. However, with the increased use, many studies have reported the toxicity of fipronil and its metabolites in various non-target organisms during the last two decades. Currently, it is regarded as one of the most persistent and lipophilic insecticides in the market. In the environment, fipronil can undergo oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, or photolysis to form fipronil sulfone, fipronil sulfide, fipronil amide, or fipronil desulfinyl respectively. These metabolites except fipronil amide are more or less toxic and persistent than fipronil and have been reported from diverse environmental samples. Recently many studies have focused on the degradation and removal of fipronil residues from the environment. However, a comprehensive review summarizing and combining these recent findings is lacking. In the present review, we evaluate, summarize, and combine important findings from recent degradation studies of fipronil and its metabolites. An attempt has been made to elucidate the possible mechanism and pathways of degradation of fipronil and its toxic metabolites. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Ngangbam Sarat Singh, Ranju Sharma, Sandeep Kumar Singh, Dileep Kumar Singh. A comprehensive review of environmental fate and degradation of fipronil and its toxic metabolites. Environmental research. 2021 May 11;199:111316

PMID: 33989624

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