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    In recent years, because of their unique properties, the use of perfluorocarbon nanodroplets (PFC NDs) in ultrasound-mediated tumor theranostics has attracted increasing interest. PFC is one of the most stable organic compounds with high hydrophobicity. Phase-shift PFC NDs can be transformed into highly echogenic microbubbles for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging by ultrasound and laser light. In addition, in the process of acoustic droplet vaporization, PFC NDs with cavitation nuclei can be combined with a variety of ultrasound technologies to produce cavitation effects for tumor ablation, antivascular therapy and release of therapeutic agents loaded in nanodroplets. Moreover, they can also be used to overcome tumor hypoxia by virtue of high oxygen solubility. In this review, first the preparation and stabilization of PFC NDs are summarized and then the issues and outlook are discussed. More importantly, multifunctional platforms based on PFC NDs for cancer diagnostics, therapy and theranostics are reviewed in detail. Copyright © 2021 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Ranran Guo, Na Xu, Ying Liu, Guixia Ling, Jia Yu, Peng Zhang. Functional ultrasound-triggered phase-shift perfluorocarbon nanodroplets for cancer therapy. Ultrasound in medicine & biology. 2021 Aug;47(8):2064-2079

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    PMID: 33992473

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