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    Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called pneumococcus) is not only a commensal that frequently colonizes the human upper respiratory tract but also a pathogen that causes pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. The mechanism of pneumococcal infection has been extensively studied, but the process of transmission has not been fully elucidated because of the lack of tractable animal models. Novel animal models of transmission have enabled further progress in investigating pneumococcal transmission mechanisms including the processes such as pneumococcal shedding, survival in the external environment, and adherence to the nasopharynx of a new host. Herein, we present a review on these animal models, recent research findings about pneumococcal transmission, and factors influencing the host-pneumococcus interaction. Copyright © 2021 Morimura, Hamaguchi, Akeda and Tomono.


    Ayumi Morimura, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Yukihiro Akeda, Kazunori Tomono. Mechanisms Underlying Pneumococcal Transmission and Factors Influencing Host-Pneumococcus Interaction: A Review. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. 2021;11:639450

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    PMID: 33996623

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