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Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is associated with increased cardiovascular risks and progression of chronic kidney disease. The pathophysiology of TRH is multifactorial, including overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system, endothelial dysfunction, and volume overload. Endothelin-1 is a vasoconstrictive peptide that causes neurohormonal and sympathetic activation, increased aldosterone synthesis and secretion, endothelial dysfunction, vascular hypertrophy and remodeling, and fibrosis. Endothelin-1 acts through 2 receptors, ETA and ETB. Activation of ETA receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells results in vasoconstriction, whereas ETB receptor activation results in vasoconstriction in the vascular smooth muscle cells and vasodilation through nitric oxide release in endothelial cells. Aprocitentan is novel, oral, dual endothelin-receptor antagonist that has demonstrated a more favorable tolerability and safety profile in early clinical trials compared with other endothelin-receptor antagonists studied. Phase 2 trial data support a significant reduction in blood pressure compared to placebo and similar blood pressure reduction compared to a moderately dosed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in patients with essential hypertension. An ongoing phase 3 randomized clinical trial is evaluating aprocitentan's efficacy and safety in patients with TRH receiving multiple antihypertensives. Additional research is needed to determine aprocitentan's role in therapy, but this agent may be a suitable treatment option for TRH. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Citation

Emily K McCoy, Katelin M Lisenby. Aprocitentan (a Dual Endothelin-Receptor Antagonist) for Treatment-Resistant Hypertension. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2021 Jun 01;77(6):699-706

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PMID: 34001723

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