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    The recently introduced, highly sensitive and specific SS18-SSX immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an attractive alternative to SS18 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing in synovial sarcoma (SS). However, little is known about how SS18-SSX IHC correlates with SS18 FISH. We correlated the SS18 FISH results of SS from 36 patients with SS18-SSX IHC. Twenty-six tumours had a classic break-apart FISH pattern (1 fused, 1 red and 1 green signal) and all stained positive for the IHC. Ten had an atypical (non-classic) FISH pattern of which 5 stained positive for the IHC. Four of these (including two with novel atypical SS18 FISH patterns) were confirmed to harbour the SS18-SSX fusion on targeted RNA sequencing, while one had classic features of a biphasic SS. The remaining 5 tumours stained negative for the IHC. One had a TPM3-NTRK1 fusion, and one had no fusion, while the remaining three had insufficient tissue/RNA for sequencing. The sensitivity of the IHC was 91% (after excluding the 2 cases with confirmed absence of SS18-SSX fusion). Twenty histologic mimics of SS also stained negative for the IHC (100% specificity). Our study shows that the SS18-SSX IHC is more specific than SS18 FISH in diagnosing SS, especially in cases with atypical FISH patterns. It correlates well with RNA sequencing result and has the potential to replace SS18 FISH testing. A positive IHC result supports the diagnosis of SS, while a tumour with atypical FISH pattern and negative IHC result should undergo further molecular testing. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Timothy Kwang Yong Tay, Nadiah Binte Sukma, Tse Hui Lim, Chik Hong Kuick, Jian Yuan Goh, Kenneth Tou En Chang. Correlating SS18-SSX immunohistochemistry (IHC) with SS18 fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in synovial sarcomas: a study of 36 cases. Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology. 2021 Oct;479(4):785-793

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    PMID: 34091760

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