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Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large family of viruses responsible for the severe pathophysiological effects on human health. The most severe outbreak includes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 poses major challenges to clinical management because no specific FDA-approved therapy yet to be available. Thus, the existing therapies are being used for the treatment of COVID-19, which are under clinical trials and compassionate use, based on in vitro and in silico studies. In this review, we summarize the potential therapies utilizing small molecules, bioactive compounds, nucleoside and nucleotide analogs, peptides, antibodies, natural products, and synthetic compounds targeting the complex molecular signaling network involved in COVID-19. In this review>230 natural and chemically synthesized drug therapies are described with their recent advances in research and development being done in terms of their chemical, structural and functional properties. This review focuses on possible targets for viral cells, viral proteins, viral replication, and different molecular pathways for the discovery of novel viral- and host-based therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shivraj Hariram Nile, Arti Nile, Shivkumar Jalde, Guoyin Kai. Recent advances in potential drug therapies combating COVID-19 and related coronaviruses-A perspective. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2021 Aug;154:112333

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PMID: 34118347

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