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    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterised by hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities. We clarified the clinical and genetic features in 90 Chinese WS probands. Disease-causing variants were detected in 55 probands, for a molecular diagnosis rate of 61%, including cases related to PAX3 (14.4%), MITF (24.4%), and SOX10 (22.2%). Altogether, 48 variants were identified, including 44 single-nucleotide variants and 4 copy number variants. By parental genotyping, de novo variants were observed in 60% of probands and 15.4% of the de novo variation was associated with mosaicism. Statistical analyses revealed that brown freckles on the skin were more frequently seen in probands with MITF variants; patchy depigmented skin, asymmetric hearing loss, and white forelocks occurred more often in cases with PAX3 variants; and congenital inner ear malformations were more common and cochlear hypoplasia III was exclusively observed in those with SOX10 variants. In addition, we found that ranges of W-index values overlapped between WS probands with different genetic variants, and the use of the W-index as a tool for assessing dystopia canthorum may be problematic in Chinese. Herein, we report the spectrum of a cohort of WS probands and elucidate the relationship between genotype and phenotype. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Guojian Wang, Xiaohong Li, Xue Gao, Yu Su, Mingyu Han, Bo Gao, Chang Guo, Dongyang Kang, Shasha Huang, Yongyi Yuan, Pu Dai. Analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships in 90 Chinese probands with Waardenburg syndrome. Human genetics. 2022 Apr;141(3-4):839-852

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    PMID: 34142234

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