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    The maternal-foetal interface is an immune-privileged site where the semi-allogeneic embryo is protected from attacks by the maternal immune system. Uterine macrophages are key players in establishing and maintaining pregnancy, and the dysregulation of the M1-M2 subpopulation balance causes abortion. We separated two distinct mouse uterine macrophage subpopulations during early pregnancy, CD45+ F4/80+ CD206- M1-like (M1) and CD45+ F4/80+ CD206+ M2-like (M2) cells. The M1 preponderance was significantly exaggerated at 6 hours after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, and adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages partially rescued LPS-induced abortion. RNA sequencing analysis of mouse uterine M2 versus M1 revealed 1837 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), among which 629 was up-regulated and 1208 was down-regulated. Histone deacetylase 9 (Hdac9) was one of the DEGs and validated to be significantly up-regulated in uterine M2 as compared with M1. Remarkably, this differential expression profile between M1 and M2 was also evident in primary splenic macrophages and in vitro polarized murine peritoneal, bone marrow-derived and RAW 264.7 macrophages. In Hdac9/HDAC9 knockout RAW 264.7 and human THP-1-derived macrophages, the expression of M1 differentiation markers was unchanged or decreased whereas M2 markers were increased compared with the wild-type cells, and these effects were unrelated to compromised proliferation. Furthermore, Hdac9/HDAC9 ablation significantly enhanced the phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres in M2 Raw 264.7 cells yet decreased the capacity of THP-1-derived M1 macrophages. The above results demonstrate that Hdac9/HDAC9 deficiency exaggerates M2 macrophage polarization in mouse and human macrophages, which may provide clues for our understanding of the epigenetic regulation on macrophage M1/M2 polarization in maternal-foetal tolerance. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Yanqin Liu, Meirong Du, Hai-Yan Lin. Histone deacetylase 9 deficiency exaggerates uterine M2 macrophage polarization. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine. 2021 Aug;25(16):7690-7708

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    PMID: 34145738

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