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    Steroid hormones (SHs) have been widely used over the past few decades as both human and veterinary drugs to prevent or treat infectious diseases and anti-inflammatory benefits in clinical. Unfortunately, their residues in foodstuffs and environmental samples can produce adverse effects on human and animal life such as disrupting the endocrine system. For these reasons, sensitive, simple and efficient methods have been developed for the determination of these compounds in various matrices. This critical review summarized the articles published in the period from 2012 to 2019 and can be used to help researchers to understand development of the sample pretreatment protocols and analytical methods used to detect SHs. The developed extraction and purification techniques used for steroids in different samples, such as cloud point extraction, solid phase extraction based on different novel materials, microextraction methods, QuEChERS and other methods are summarized and discussed. Analytical methods used to quantify these compounds, such as different chromatography methods, electrochemical methods, as well as other methods, are illustrated and compared. We focused on the latest advances in SHs pretreatment, and the application of new technologies in SHs analysis.


    Yang Song, Xue-Song Feng. Sample Preparation and Analytical Methods for Steroid Hormones in Environmental and Food Samples: An Update Since 2012. Critical reviews in analytical chemistry. 2023;53(1):69-87

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    PMID: 34152888

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