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    B cells play both protective and pathogenic roles in T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases by releasing regulatory vs. pathogenic cytokines. B cell-depleting therapy has been attempted in various autoimmune diseases but its efficacy varies and can even worsen symptoms due to depletion of B cells releasing regulatory cytokines along with B cells releasing pathogenic cytokines. Here, we report that S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and GSNO-reductase (GSNOR) inhibitor N6022 drive upregulation of regulatory cytokine (IL-10) and downregulation of pathogenic effector cytokine (IL-6) in B cells and protected against the neuroinflammatory disease of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In human and mouse B cells, the GSNO/N6022-mediated regulation of IL-10 vs. IL-6 was not limited to regulatory B cells but also to a broad range of B cell subsets and antibody-secreting cells. Adoptive transfer of B cells from N6022 treated EAE mice or EAE mice deficient in the GSNOR gene also regulated T cell balance (Treg > Th17) and reduced clinical disease in the recipient EAE mice. The data presented here provide evidence of the role of GSNO in shifting B cell immune balance (IL-10 > IL-6) and the preclinical relevance of N6022, a first-in-class drug targeting GSNOR with proven human safety, as therapeutics for autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Judong Kim, S M Touhidul Islam, Fei Qiao, Avtar K Singh, Mushfiquddin Khan, Jeseong Won, Inderjit Singh. Regulation of B cell functions by S-nitrosoglutathione in the EAE model. Redox biology. 2021 Sep;45:102053

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    PMID: 34175668

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