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    DNA vaccines have emerged as innovative approaches that have great potential to overcome the limitations of current conventional vaccines. Plasmid DNA vaccines are often safer than other vaccines because they carry only antigen genetic information, are more stable and easier to produce, and can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses. Although the results of ongoing clinical trials are very promising, some limitations compromise the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Thus, this review describes different strategies that can be explored to improve the immunogenicity of plasmid DNA vaccines, including the optimization of the plasmid vector backbone, the use of different methods for vaccine delivery, the use of alternative administration routes and the inclusion of adjuvants. In combination, these improvements could lead to the successful clinical use of plasmid DNA vaccines. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Dalinda Eusébio, Ana R Neves, Diana Costa, Swati Biswas, Gilberto Alves, Zhengrong Cui, Ângela Sousa. Methods to improve the immunogenicity of plasmid DNA vaccines. Drug discovery today. 2021 Nov;26(11):2575-2592

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    PMID: 34214667

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