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    In this work, pristine graphene oxide and its thermally reduced derivatives, rGO, were tested for the removal of triazines (atraton, prometryn, and atrazine) from water. The reduction process was optimized by means of design of experiments (DOE) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM), relying on the adsorption efficiency of the material. The optimal reduction conditions were calculated at a temperature of 110 °C maintained for 24 h; the mildest and simplest reduction protocol was chosen, as it allows in-air heat treatment with a common laboratory oven. The rGO samples were characterized before use, confirming a partial reduction process that, leaving intact most of the oxygenated functionalities on the graphene skeleton, may still allow favorable adsorption of pollutants through both hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions, which result from a large conjugated polyaromatic system. Triazine analyses were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the data obtained from the adsorption isotherms were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich models, highlighting a slightly different adsorption behavior of atraton and prometryn compared with atrazine. Model outcomes were also used to support the hypotheses about the adsorption process. © 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.


    Martina Foschi, Paola Capasso, Maria Anna Maggi, Fabrizio Ruggieri, Giulia Fioravanti. Experimental Design and Response Surface Methodology Applied to Graphene Oxide Reduction for Adsorption of Triazine Herbicides. ACS omega. 2021 Jul 06;6(26):16943-16954

    PMID: 34250353

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