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Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) are large multimodular enzymes that synthesize a diverse variety of peptides. Many of these are currently used as pharmaceuticals, thanks to their activity as antimicrobials (penicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, echinocandin), immunosuppressant (cyclosporin) and anticancer compounds (bleomycin). Because of their biotechnological potential, NRPSs have been extensively studied in the past decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the main structural and functional features of these enzymes, and we consider the challenges and prospects of engineering NRPSs for the synthesis of novel compounds. Furthermore, we discuss secondary metabolism and NRP synthesis in the filamentous fungus Penicillium rubens and examine its potential for the production of novel and modified β-lactam antibiotics. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Riccardo Iacovelli, Roel A L Bovenberg, Arnold J M Driessen. Nonribosomal peptide synthetases and their biotechnological potential in Penicillium rubens. Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology. 2021 Aug 24;48(7-8)

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PMID: 34279620

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