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    Aluminium (Al) hydroxide use as adjuvant induces local formation of long-lasting subcutaneous granulomas in sheep. Macrophages within these granulomas have been identified as a new small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) replication site in naturally infected animals. Diagnosis of Al hydroxide-induced granulomas in sheep is mostly based on postmortem observations but little information is available on in vivo detection. Computed tomography (CT) is used for studying these reactions in other animal species. To determine if CT could be a tool for in vivo diagnosis and research of subcutaneous Al hydroxide-induced granulomas in sheep. A retrospective survey on thoracic CT scans was performed on 46 adult sheep. Analysis included absence or presence, number and location of subcutaneous nodules. Thoracic CT scans and pathological studies were prescribed to two further sheep. Single or multiple subcutaneous nodules were detected in 26 (56.52%) sheep. One or two nodules per animal were most often observed (36.95%). Size ranged between 1.5 and 4.5 cm. Pre-contrast two-dimensional (2D) CT images showed focal or multifocal increases in subcutaneous tissue thickness. Post-contrast 2D CT images revealed hypointense areas in the centre. Histopathology indicated the presence of granulomas composed by a large number of activated macrophages, surrounding a central core of necrosis. Large intracytoplasmic Al-positive aggregates were demonstrated by lumogallion staining. CT is a useful tool to detect subcutaneous Al hydroxide-induced granulomas in vivo in sheep. CT provides a diagnostic and research tool that can be very useful in future works in Al hydroxide-induced pathology, SRLV infection, or both. © 2021 The Authors. Veterinary Medicine and Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Ana Rodríguez-Largo, Enrique Castells, Ricardo de Miguel, Álex Gómez, Héctor Ruiz, Marta Pérez, Ramsés Reina, Luis M Ferrer, Lluís Luján. Detection of aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in sheep by computed tomography: A feasible approach for small ruminant lentiviruses diagnosis and research. Veterinary medicine and science. 2021 Sep;7(5):1757-1761

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    PMID: 34296523

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