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Fostemsavir, a prodrug of the gp120-directed attachment inhibitor temsavir, is indicated for use in heavily treatment-experienced individuals with MDR HIV-1. Reduced susceptibility to temsavir in the clinic maps to discrete changes at amino acid positions in gp160: S375, M426, M434 and M475. To query the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) HIV Sequence Database for the prevalence of polymorphisms at gp160 positions of interest. Full-length gp160 sequences (N = 7560) were queried for amino acid polymorphisms relative to the subtype B consensus at positions of interest; frequencies were reported for all sequences and among subtypes/circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) with ≥10 isolates in the database. Among 239 subtypes in the database, the 5 most prevalent were B (n = 2651, 35.1%), C (n = 1626, 21.5%), CRF01_AE (n = 674, 8.9%), A1 (n = 273, 3.6%) and CRF02_AG (n = 199, 2.6%). Among all 7560 sequences, the most prevalent amino acids at positions of interest (S375, 73.5%; M426, 82.1%; M434, 88.2%; M475, 89.9%) were the same as the subtype B consensus. Specific polymorphisms with the potential to decrease temsavir susceptibility (S375H/I/M/N/T/Y, M426L/P, M434I/K and M475I) were found in <10% of isolates of subtypes D, G, A6, BC, F1, CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC, 02A, CRF06_cpx, F2, 02G and 02B. S375H and M475I were predominant among CRF01_AE (S375H, 99.3%; M475I, 76.3%; consistent with previously reported low temsavir susceptibility of this CRF) and 01B (S375H, 71.7%; M475I, 49.5%). Analysis of the LANL HIV Sequence Database found a low prevalence of gp160 amino acid polymorphisms with the potential to reduce temsavir susceptibility overall and among most of the common subtypes. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

Citation

Margaret Gartland, Eric Arnoult, Brian T Foley, Max Lataillade, Peter Ackerman, Cyril Llamoso, Mark Krystal. Prevalence of gp160 polymorphisms known to be related to decreased susceptibility to temsavir in different subtypes of HIV-1 in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV Sequence Database. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2021 Oct 11;76(11):2958-2964

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PMID: 34297843

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