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Once cartilage is damaged, its self-repair capacity is very limited. The strategy of tissue engineering has brought a new idea for repairing cartilage defect and cartilage regeneration. In particular, nasal cartilage regeneration is a challenge because of the steady increase in nasal reconstruction after oncologic resection, trauma, or rhinoplasty. From this perspective, three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a promising technology to address the complexity of nasal cartilage regeneration, using patient's image data and computer-aided deposition of cells and biomaterials to precisely fabricate complex, personalized tissue-engineered constructs. In this review, we summarized the major progress of three prevalent 3D printing approaches, including inkjet-based printing, extrusion-based printing and laser-assisted printing. Examples are highlighted to illustrate 3D printing for nasal cartilage regeneration, with special focus on the selection of seeded cell, scaffolds and growth factors. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review recent research about the challenges and progress and look forward to the future of 3D printing techniques for nasal cartilage regeneration.Level of Evidence III This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors . © 2021. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.


Yanyan Cao, Shengbo Sang, Yang An, Chuan Xiang, Yanping Li, Yonghuan Zhen. Progress of 3D Printing Techniques for Nasal Cartilage Regeneration. Aesthetic plastic surgery. 2022 Apr;46(2):947-964

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PMID: 34312695

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