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    The large-scale application of xenobiotics adversely affects the environment. The genes that are present in the chromosome of the bacteria are considered nonmobile, whereas the genes present on the plasmids are considered mobile genetic elements. Plasmids are considered indispensable for xenobiotic degradation into the contaminated environment. In the contaminated sites, bacteria with plasmids can transfer the mobile genetic element into another strain. This mechanism helps in spreading the catabolic genes into the bacterial population at the contaminated sites. The indigenous microbial strains with such degradative plasmids are important for the bioremediation of xenobiotics. Environmental factors play a critical role in the conjugation efficiency, which is involved in the bioremediation of the xenobiotics at the contaminated sites. However, there is still a need for more research to fill in the gaps regarding plasmids and their impact on bioremediation. This review explores the role of bacterial plasmids in the bioremediation of xenobiotics from contaminated environments. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Pankaj Bhatt, Geeta Bhandari, Kalpana Bhatt, Damini Maithani, Sandhya Mishra, Saurabh Gangola, Rakesh Bhatt, Yaohua Huang, Shaohua Chen. Plasmid-mediated catabolism for the removal of xenobiotics from the environment. Journal of hazardous materials. 2021 Oct 15;420:126618

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    PMID: 34329102

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