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The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is widely used due to it selective action, and preferential control of dicotyledonous weeds affecting cereal crops. Physiological responses of sensitive dicotyledonous plants to 2,4-D include growth retardation, senescence, and cell death. Due to soil and water contamination by agricultural practices, 2,4-D constitutes a potential risk to non-target plant species. In this work, the potential advantage of using organic modified bentonite (Bent) to adsorb 2,4-D and therefore mitigate damage produced by this herbicide on sensitive not-target vegetable species was investigated. Dodecylamine (DDA) was used as an organic modifier to change the hydrophilic nature of Bent into an organophilic matrix. The adsorption performances of 2,4-D by Bent-DDA were analyzed. The maximum adsorptions of 2,4-D (22.1 mg/L) from aqueous solution containing 1.0 or 2.5 mg/mL Bent-DDA were 40 and 80 %, respectively. The physical interaction of Bent-DDA with 2,4-D was characterized by Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The biological functionality of Bent-DDA matrix as 2,4-D adsorbent was tested in a bioassay in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant model system. The primary root growth of Arabidopsis seedlings is strongly inhibited by low concentrations of 2,4-D. Arabidopsis seedlings submitted to Bent-DDA pre-treated herbicide aqueous solution showed similar root growth than 2,4-D non-treated seedlings. Finally, the ability of Bent-DDA to prevent 2,4-D phytotoxicity was exploratory investigated in lettuce plants. Lettuce plants pre-treated with 20 μg/mL Bent-DDA showed reduced sensitivity to 2,4-D including an increment on chlorophyll content and biomass compared with non-treated plants. Our findings revealed a promising scenario for the application of Bent-DDA as an effective adsorbent of 2,4-D at productive scale. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


M F Salcedo, A Y Mansilla, S L Colman, M J Iglesias, V A Alvarez, C A Casalongué. Efficacy of an organically modified bentonite to adsorb 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and prevent its phytotoxicity. Journal of environmental management. 2021 Nov 01;297:113427

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PMID: 34346399

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