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    Prior research suggests that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy may be associated with stillbirth. However, the relationship between mild to moderate iodine insufficiency, which is prevalent even in developed countries, and risk of stillbirth is unclear. We thus examined associations of iodine status and risk of stillbirth in a prospective population-based nested case-control study in Finland, a mild to moderately iodine insufficient population. Stillbirth cases (n = 199) and unaffected controls (n = 249) were randomly selected from among all singleton births in Finland from 2012 to 2013. Serum samples were collected between 10 and 14 weeks gestation and analysed for iodide, thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for stillbirth were estimated using logistic regression. After adjusting for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index, socio-economic status and other factors, neither high nor low serum iodide was associated with risk of stillbirth (Q1 vs. Q2-Q3 OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.78-1.09; Q4 vs. Q2-Q3 OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.45-1.33). Tg and TSH were also not associated with risk of stillbirth in adjusted models. Maternal iodine status was not associated with stillbirth risk in this mildly to moderately iodine-deficient population. Tg and TSH, which reflect functional iodine status, were also not associated with stillbirth risk. The lack of associations observed between serum iodide, TSH and Tg and risk of stillbirth is reassuring, given that iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in developed countries. © 2021 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.


    Alexandra C Purdue-Smithe, Tuija Männistö, Elijah Reische, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Un-Jung Kim, Eila Suvanto, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Mika Gissler, James L Mills. Iodine and thyroid status during pregnancy and risk of stillbirth: A population-based nested case-control study. Maternal & child nutrition. 2022 Jan;18(1):e13252

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    PMID: 34350728

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