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    Melanoma represents less than 5% of skin cancers, but is the most lethal, mainly because of its high-metastatic potential and resistance to various therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop effective treatments, especially chemotherapeutic drugs with cytotoxicity, anti-metastaticity, and few side effects. One such natural product is hispidulin, a flavone distributed in plants of the Asteraceae. Previous studies have demonstrated that hispidulin has various pharmacological benefits, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, and anti-allergic effects. This study aims to explore the effects of hispidulin against melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Results revealed that hispidulin selectively decreased the cell viability of A2058 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hispidulin induced cells accumulated in the sub-G1 phase via activating caspase 8 and 9, increased cleaved caspase 3, and cleaved PARP expression. Hispidulin was able to decrease AKT and ERK phosphorylation, which facilitated cell growth and survival. Moreover, hispidulin promoted reactive oxygen species generation in cells and suppressed cell migration through downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. Hispidulin significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model. Based on these results, hispidulin produces its anti-melanoma effects by inducing cancer cell apoptosis and reducing its migration. Therefore, we suggest hispidulin as a potent therapeutic candidate for melanoma treatment.

    Citation

    Chi-Jen Chang, Yen-Ling Hung, Ting-Chen Chen, Hsin-Ju Li, Yuan-Hsin Lo, Nan-Lin Wu, Der-Chen Chang, Chi-Feng Hung. Anti-Proliferative and Anti-Migratory Activities of Hispidulin on Human Melanoma A2058 Cells. Biomolecules. 2021 Jul 16;11(7)

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    PMID: 34356663

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