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Much progress has been made toward deciphering RHO GTPase functions, and many studies have convincingly demonstrated that altered signal transduction through RHO GTPases is a recurring theme in the progression of human malignancies. It seems that 20 canonical RHO GTPases are likely regulated by three GDIs, 85 GEFs, and 66 GAPs, and eventually interact with >70 downstream effectors. A recurring theme is the challenge in understanding the molecular determinants of the specificity of these four classes of interacting proteins that, irrespective of their functions, bind to common sites on the surface of RHO GTPases. Identified and structurally verified hotspots as functional determinants specific to RHO GTPase regulation by GDIs, GEFs, and GAPs as well as signaling through effectors are presented, and challenges and future perspectives are discussed.


Niloufar Mosaddeghzadeh, Mohammad Reza Ahmadian. The RHO Family GTPases: Mechanisms of Regulation and Signaling. Cells. 2021 Jul 20;10(7)

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PMID: 34359999

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