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After centuries of development, using vaccination to stimulate immunity has become an effective method for prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases including infective diseases and cancers. However, the tailor-made efficient delivery system for specific antigens is still urgently needed due to the low immunogenicity and stability of antigens, especially for vaccines to induce CD8+ T cells-mediated cellular immunity. Unlike B cells-mediated humoral immunity, CD8+ T cells-mediated cellular immunity mainly aims at the intracellular antigens from microorganism in virus-infected cells or genetic mutations in tumor cells. Therefore, the vaccines for stimulating CD8+ T cells-mediated cellular immunity should deliver the antigens efficiently into the cytoplasm of antigen presenting cells (APCs) to form major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI)-antigen complex through cross-presentation, followed by activating CD8+ T cells for immune protection and clearance. Importantly, nanotechnology has been emerged as a powerful tool to facilitate these multiple processes specifically, allowing not only enhanced antigen immunogenicity and stability but also APCs-targeted delivery and elevated cross-presentation. This review summarizes the process of CD8+ T cells-mediated cellular immunity induced by vaccines and the technical advantages of nanotechnology implementation in general, then provides an overview of the whole spectrum of nanocarriers studied so far and the recent development of delivery nanotechnology in vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Finally, we look forward to the future development of nanotechnology for the next generation of vaccines to induce CD8+ T cells-mediated cellular immunity. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Guangna Liu, Motao Zhu, Xiao Zhao, Guangjun Nie. Nanotechnology-empowered vaccine delivery for enhancing CD8+ T cells-mediated cellular immunity. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2021 Sep;176:113889

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PMID: 34364931

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