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    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease causing cognitive decline in the aging population. To develop disease-modifying treatments, understanding the mechanisms behind the pathology is important, which should include observations using human brain samples. We reported previously on the association of lysosomal proteins progranulin (PGRN) and prosaposin (PSAP) with amyloid plaques in non-demented aged control and AD brains. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of PGRN and PSAP in tangle formation using human brain tissue sections of non-demented aged control subjects and AD cases and compared with cases of frontotemporal dementia with granulin (GRN) mutations. The study revealed that decreased amounts of PGRN and PSAP proteins were detected even in immature neurofibrillary tangles, while colocalization was still evident in adjacent neurons in all cases. Results suggest that neuronal loss of PGRN preceded loss of PSAP as tangles developed and matured. The GRN mutation cases exhibited almost complete absence of PGRN in most neurons, while PSAP signal was preserved. Although based on correlative data, we suggest that reduced levels of PGRN and PSAP and their interaction in neurons might predispose to accumulation of p-Tau protein. © 2021 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.


    Anarmaa Mendsaikhan, Ikuo Tooyama, Geidy E Serrano, Thomas G Beach, Douglas G Walker. Loss of Lysosomal Proteins Progranulin and Prosaposin Associated with Increased Neurofibrillary Tangle Development in Alzheimer Disease. Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 2021 Sep 10;80(8):741-753

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    PMID: 34374777

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