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Antibiotic mycelial dregs (AMDs) have been listed as industrial hazardous wastes. With the aim of reducing the environmental risk, the integrated-omics and qPCR approaches were used to reveal the dynamics and removal mechanisms of antibiotic and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the fermentation of different spectinomycin mycelial dregs (SMDs). The results showed that the removal efficiency of antibiotic in the fermentation of high moisture SMDs reached up to 98%. The high abundance of aadA1 gene encoded by Streptomyces, Lactobacillus, and Pseudomonas was associated with the efficient degradation of spectinomycin, and the inactivating enzymes secreted by degradative bacteria were identified. Furthermore, the dominant microbiota was impacted by moisture content significantly under high temperature environments. In the fermentation of low moisture SMDs, Saccharopolyspora was the dominant microbiota which secreted S8 endopeptidase, M14, M15, S10, S13 carboxypeptidases, M1, M28, S15 aminopeptidases, and antioxidant enzymes, while in the fermentation of high moisture SMDs, Bacillus and Cerasibacillus were dominant genera which mainly secreted S8 endopeptidase and antioxidant enzymes. The abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements decreased significantly at thermophilic phase, with maximum drops of 93.7% and 99.9%, respectively. Maintaining moisture content below 30% at the end phase could prevent the transmission of ARGs effectively. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Guomeng Sha, Wenhui Bi, Lili Zhang, Tong Chen, Xin Li, Guanjun Chen, Lushan Wang. Dynamics and removal mechanisms of antibiotic and antibiotic resistance genes during the fermentation process of spectinomycin mycelial dregs: An integrated meta-omics study. Journal of hazardous materials. 2022 Jan 05;421:126822

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PMID: 34396972

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