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Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis type 1 (AFFND1) is an extremely rare disorder characterized by several dysmorphic features, skeletal abnormalities and intellectual disability, and described only in seven patients in the literature. A biallelic variant in the Neuroblastoma Amplified Sequence (NBAS) gene was recently identified in two Indian patients with AFFND1. Here we report genetic investigation of AFFND1 in the originally described Brazilian families and the identification of an extremely rare, recessively-inherited, intronic variant in the Phosphatidylinositol Glycan class B (PIGB) gene NC_000015.10 (NM_004855.4): c.795-19T > G) in the affected individuals. The PIGB gene encodes an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, which is required for the post-translational modification of a large variety of proteins, enabling their correct cellular localization and function. Recessive variants in PIGB have previously been reported in individuals with a neurodevelopmental syndrome having partial overlap with AFFND1. In vitro assays demonstrated that the intronic variant leads to exon skipping, suggesting the Brazilian AFFND1 patients may be null for PIGB, in agreement with their severe clinical phenotype. These data increase the number of pathogenic variants in the PIGB gene, place AFFND1 among GPI deficiencies and extend the spectrum of phenotypes associated with GPI biosynthesis defects. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Eleonora Palagano, Christopher T Gordon, Paolo Uva, Dario Strina, Clémantine Dimartino, Anna Villa, Jeanne Amiel, Maria L Guion-Almeida, Siulan Vendramini-Pittoli, Nancy M Kokitsu-Nakata, Roseli M Zechi-Ceide, Cristina Sobacchi. A novel intronic variant in PIGB in Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis type 1 patients expands the spectrum of phenotypes associated with GPI biosynthesis defects. Bone. 2021 Dec;153:116152

PMID: 34400385

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