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Transformation of flat membrane into round vesicles is generally thought to underlie endocytosis and produce speed-, amount-, and vesicle-size-specific endocytic modes. Visualizing depolarization-induced exocytic and endocytic membrane transformation in live neuroendocrine chromaffin cells, we found that flat membrane is transformed into Λ-shaped, Ω-shaped, and O-shaped vesicles via invagination, Λ-base constriction, and Ω-pore constriction, respectively. Surprisingly, endocytic vesicle formation is predominantly from not flat-membrane-to-round-vesicle transformation but calcium-triggered and dynamin-mediated closure of (1) Ω profiles formed before depolarization and (2) fusion pores (called kiss-and-run). Varying calcium influxes control the speed, number, and vesicle size of these pore closures, resulting in speed-specific slow (more than ∼6 s), fast (less than ∼6 s), or ultrafast (<0.6 s) endocytosis, amount-specific compensatory endocytosis (endocytosis = exocytosis) or overshoot endocytosis (endocytosis > exocytosis), and size-specific bulk endocytosis. These findings reveal major membrane transformation mechanisms underlying endocytosis, diverse endocytic modes, and exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, calling for correction of the half-a-century concept that the flat-to-round transformation predominantly mediates endocytosis after physiological stimulation. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Wonchul Shin, Lisi Wei, Gianvito Arpino, Lihao Ge, Xiaoli Guo, Chung Yu Chan, Edaeni Hamid, Oleg Shupliakov, Christopher K E Bleck, Ling-Gang Wu. Preformed Ω-profile closure and kiss-and-run mediate endocytosis and diverse endocytic modes in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. Neuron. 2021 Oct 06;109(19):3119-3134.e5

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PMID: 34411513

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