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    A growing number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) associated with compromised mitochondrial energy metabolism manifest an unusual phenotypic feature: 3-methylglutaconic (3MGC) aciduria. Two major categories of 3MGC aciduria, primary and secondary, have been described. In primary 3MGC aciduria, IEMs in 3MGC CoA hydratase (AUH) or HMG CoA lyase block leucine catabolism, resulting in a buildup of pathway intermediates, including 3MGC CoA. Subsequent thioester hydrolysis yields 3MGC acid, which is excreted in urine. In secondary 3MGC aciduria, no deficiencies in leucine catabolism enzymes exist and 3MGC CoA is formed de novo from acetyl CoA. In the "acetyl CoA diversion pathway", when IEMs directly, or indirectly, interfere with TCA cycle activity, acetyl CoA accumulates in the matrix space. This leads to condensation of two acetyl CoA to form acetoacetyl CoA, followed by another condensation between acetyl CoA and acetoacetyl CoA to form 3-hydroxy, 3-methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA. Once formed, HMG CoA serves as a substrate for AUH, producing trans-3MGC CoA. Non enzymatic isomerization of trans-3MGC CoA to cis-3MGC CoA precedes intramolecular cyclization to cis-3MGC anhydride plus CoA. Subsequent hydrolysis of cis-3MGC anhydride gives rise to cis-3MGC acid, which is excreted in urine. In reviewing 20 discrete IEMs that manifest secondary 3MGC aciduria, evidence supporting the acetyl CoA diversion pathway was obtained. This biochemical pathway serves as an "overflow valve" in muscle / brain tissue to redirect acetyl CoA to 3MGC CoA when entry to the TCA cycle is impeded. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Dylan E Jones, Emma Klacking, Robert O Ryan. Inborn errors of metabolism associated with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry. 2021 Nov;522:96-104

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    PMID: 34411555

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