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Melanoma is associated with poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Potential influence of estrogen and its metabolites on melanoma growth has been suggested. The objective of this review was to provide an overview on the evidence related to estrogen in malignant melanoma. Literature search using PubMed, Google Scholar and relevant cross-references of the retrieved articles was performed to review relevant published articles related to estrogen and its effects in malignant melanoma. Effect of estrogen signaling on a tissue largely depends on the relative expression of estrogen receptors (ER) α and β. Gender differences in melanoma may be explained by the difference in expression of these receptors. ERβ is the principal ER in melanoma. Although there is uncertainty about role of estrogen in pathogenensis and progression of melanoma, evidence suggests that its growth and metastasis are influenced by estrogen stimulation. Role ER on the proliferation of melanoma cells is well described. There is a need of safe and effective therapy for melanoma, especially for advanced cases. After the establishment of specific role of estrogen and its receptor, analysis of specific genetic mutation can be performed for proper utilization of targeted therapies. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Neetu Bhari, Robert A Schwaertz, Zoe Apalla, Gabriel Salerni, Bengu Nisa Akay, Anant Patil, Stephan Grabbe, Mohamad Goldust. Effect of estrogen in malignant melanoma. Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2022 May;21(5):1905-1912

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PMID: 34416066

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