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    A novel isocratic stability-indicating chromatographic method was developed, optimized and validated using Design-Expert® following ICH guidelines for the quantification of Timolol maleate (TM). The intrinsic stability of TM was assessed by force degradation studies, which concluded no extensive degradation except under alkaline and oxidative conditions. TM was quantified accurately in the surfactant-based elastic vesicular system by separating it on Hypersil BDS C8 column using triethylamine in H2O (0.15%v/v; pH 3.0) and acetonitrile (ACN; 65:35%v/v). The influence of variable factors like mobile phase pH, injection volume (μL), flow rate (mL/min) and ACN content (%) on method responses were assessed using a full factorial design. The method was linear between 0.05 and 10 μg/mL with an R2 value of 0.9993. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.90 and 27.2 ng/mL. The method was specific, with recovery in plain drug solution of 89-92% and elastic nanovesicles of 90-93%. The experimental model was significant (P < 0.0001) as indicated by deliberate changes in the method analyzed through analysis of variance. The total drug content in elastic nanovesicles was estimated to be 9.53 ± 0.01 mg/20-mL dispersion and entrapment efficiency was 44.52 ± 0.73%. The developed method was rapid, economic and precise for the quantification of TM in bulk and vesicular system. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:


    Santoshi Naik, Prashansha Mullick, Sadhana P Mutalik, Aswathi R Hegde, Shaila Angela Lewis, Krishnamurthy Bhat, Bola Sadashiva Satish Rao, Srinivas Mutalik. Full Factorial Design for Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Timolol Maleate in Surfactant-Based Elastic Nano-Vesicular Systems. Journal of chromatographic science. 2022 Jul 12;60(6):584-594

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    PMID: 34435614

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