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    Urolithiasis is the third most common urological disease after urinary tract infections and prostate diseases, and it is characterised by an occurrence rate of about 15%, which continues to rise. The increase in the incidence of kidney stones observed in recent decades, is most likely caused by modifications in dietary habits (high content of protein, sodium and sugar diet) and lifestyle (reduced physical activity) in all industrialised countries. Moreover, men are more likely than women to be diagnosed with kidney stones. A growing body of evidence suggests that inflammation, oxidant-antioxidant imbalance, angiogenesis, purine metabolism and urea cycle disorders may play a crucial role in nephrolithiasis development. Patients with urolithiasis were characterised by an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the products of lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines as well as proangiogenic factors, compared to controls. Furthermore, it has been shown that deficiency and disorders of enzymes involved in purine metabolism and the urea cycle might be causes of deposit formation. ROS generation suggests that the course of kidney stones might be additionally potentiated by inflammation, purine metabolism and the urea cycle. On the other hand, ROS overproduction may induce activation of angiogenesis, and thus, allows deposit aggregation.


    Paulina Wigner, Radosław Grębowski, Michal Bijak, Janusz Szemraj, Joanna Saluk-Bijak. The Molecular Aspect of Nephrolithiasis Development. Cells. 2021 Jul 29;10(8)

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    PMID: 34440695

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