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Amitraz, a member of the formamidine pesticide family, commonly used for ectoparasite control, is applied as a dip or low-pressure hand spray to cattle and swine, and the neck collar on dogs. Data on amitraz were generated mainly on laboratory animals, hens, dogs, and baboons. The data on the toxicity and disposition of amitraz in animals and its residues in the milk are inadequate. Therefore, the present study was intended to analyze the disposition kinetics of amitraz and its pattern of elimination in the milk of lactating does after a single dermal application at a concentration of 0.25%. Blood at predetermined time intervals and milk twice daily were collected for eight days post application. The drug concentration was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amitraz was detected in whole blood as early as 0.5 h, which attained a peak concentration at 12 ± 5 h, followed by a steady decline; however, detection persisted until 168 h. Amitraz was present in the blood at its 50% Cmax even after 48 h, and was still detectable after 7 days. The disposition after a single dermal application was best described non-compartmentally. The mean terminal half-life (t1/2), mean residence time (MRT), and area under the curve (AUC0-t) were 111 ± 31 h, 168 ± 39 h, and 539 ± 211 µg/mL/h, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution (Vdarea) was 92 ± 36 mL/g with an observed clearance (Cl) of 0.57 ± 0.33 mL/kg/h. Thus, the drug was well absorbed, widely distributed and slowly eliminated from the animal body. Amitraz achieved milk concentration approximating 0.2 per cent of the total dose after a single exposure and the steady-state elimination of amitraz in milk above the recommended maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.01 mg/kg can act as a source of public health concern when applied on lactating animals.


Sathish Nanjundappa, Suresh Narayanan Nair, Darsana Udayan, Sreelekha Kanapadinchareveetil, Mathew Jacob, Reghu Ravindran, Sanis Juliet. Disposition Kinetics of Amitraz in Lactating Does. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2021 Aug 06;26(16)

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PMID: 34443355

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