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    CRISPR/Cas, one of the most rapidly developing technologies in the world, has been applied successfully in plant science. To test new nucleases, gRNA expression systems and other inventions in this field, several plant genes with visible phenotypic effects have been constantly used as targets. Anthocyanin pigmentation is one of the most easily identified traits, that does not require any additional treatment. It is also associated with stress resistance, therefore plants with edited anthocyanin genes might be of interest for agriculture. Phenotypic effect of CRISPR/Cas editing of PAP1 and its homologs, DFR, F3H and F3'H genes have been confirmed in several distinct plant species. DFR appears to be a key structural gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis, controlled by various transcription factors. There are still many promising potential model genes that have not been edited yet. Some of them, such as Delila, MYB60, HAT1, UGT79B2, UGT79B3 and miR156, have been shown to regulate drought tolerance in addition to anthocyanin biosynthesis. Genes, also involved in trichome development, such as TTG1, GLABRA2, MYBL2 and CPC, can provide increased visibility. In this review successful events of CRISPR/Cas editing of anthocyanin genes are summarized, and new model genes are proposed. It can be useful for molecular biologists and genetic engineers, crop scientists, plant genetics and physiologists.


    Emil Khusnutdinov, Anna Sukhareva, Maria Panfilova, Elena Mikhaylova. Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes as Model Genes for Genome Editing in Plants. International journal of molecular sciences. 2021 Aug 15;22(16)

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    PMID: 34445458

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