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    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a condition resulting from impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption and excretion characterized by a triad of symptoms comprising dementia, gait disturbance (impaired trunk balance), and urinary incontinence. CSF biomarkers not only assist in diagnosis but are also important for analyzing the pathology and understanding appropriate treatment indications. As the neuropathological findings characteristic of iNPH have yet to be defined, there remains no method to diagnose iNPH with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Neurotoxic proteins are assumed to be involved in the neurological symptoms of iNPH, particularly the appearance of cognitive impairment. The symptoms of iNPH can be reversed by improving CSF turnover through shunting. However, early diagnosis is essential as once neurodegeneration has progressed, pathological changes become irreversible and symptom improvement is minimal, even after shunting. Combining a variety of diagnostic methods may lead to a more definitive diagnosis and accurate prediction of the prognosis following shunt treatment. Identifying comorbidities in iNPH using CSF biomarkers does not contraindicate shunting-based intervention, but does limit the improvement in symptoms it yields, and provides vital information for predicting post-treatment prognosis.


    Madoka Nakajima, Kaito Kawamura, Chihiro Akiba, Koichiro Sakamoto, Hambing Xu, Chihiro Kamohara, Ikuko Ogino, Kostadin Karagiozov, Yuichi Tange, Kazuaki Shimoji, Shinya Yamada, Akihide Kondo, Hajime Arai, Masakazu Miyajima. Differentiating comorbidities and predicting prognosis in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus using cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers: a review. Croatian medical journal. 2021 Aug 31;62(4):387-398

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    PMID: 34472742

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