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    Clinicians report low efficacy of Indian polyvalent antivenom (PAV), with >20 vials required for treatment of a snakebite envenoming. We hypothesize that the antivenom efficacy could be reduced due to insufficient antibodies against some venom toxins. To test this, we used third-generation antivenomics to reveal bound and unbound venom toxins of Echis carinatus venom from Goa (ECVGO) and Tamil Nadu (ECVTN). We used 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, and 360 μg of venom and passed through mini-columns containing ~5 mg Antivenom bound to CNBr beads. The non-retained (unbound) and retained (bound) toxins were identified using reverse-phase HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry. Low molecular weight toxins - Short disintegrins (5.3 kDa) and DIS domain of P-II SVMP from ECVGO and ECVTN showed poor binding with antivenom. The immunorecognition sites of antivenom saturated at the lower antivenom-venom ratio for ECVGO than for ECVTN. The immunoretained capacity of antivenom against ECVTN was 140.6 μg and ECVGO was 125.1 μg. The amount of immunoretained toxins quantified can further be used to estimate the efficacy of antivenom by correlating it with in-vivo studies. The unbound toxins identified from this study could be targeted to improve the effectiveness of antivenom. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Siddharth Bhatia, Avni Blotra, Karthikeyan Vasudevan. Immunorecognition capacity of Indian polyvalent antivenom against venom toxins from two populations of Echis carinatus. Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 2021 Oct 15;201:148-154

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    PMID: 34474069

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