Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are key secondary messenger molecules produced by cyclic dinucleotide synthases that trigger various cellular signaling cascades from bacteria to vertebrates. In mammals, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) has been shown to bind to intracellular DNA and catalyze the production of the dinucleotide 2'3' cGAMP, which signals downstream effectors to regulate immune function, interferon signaling, and the antiviral response. Despite the importance of CDNs, sensitive and accurate methods to measure their levels in vivo are lacking. Here, we report a novel LC-MS/MS method to quantify CDNs in vivo. We characterized the mass spectrometric behavior of four different biologically relevant CDNs (c-di-AMP, c-di-GMP, 3'3' cGAMP, 2'3' cGAMP) and provided a means of visually representing fragmentation resulting from collision-induced dissociation at different energies using collision energy breakdown graphs. We then validated the method and quantified CDNs in two in vivo systems, the bacteria Escherichia coli OP50 and the killifish Nothobranchius furzeri. We found that optimization of LC-MS/MS parameters is crucial to sensitivity and accuracy. These technical advances should help illuminate physiological and pathological roles of these CDNs in in vivo settings. Graphical abstract. © 2021. The Author(s).


Andrea Annibal, Roberto Ripa, Eugen Ballhysa, Christian Latza, Nadine Hochhard, Adam Antebi. Mass spectrometric characterization of cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) in vivo. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2021 Nov;413(26):6457-6468

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 34476522

View Full Text