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    The development of real-time monitoring sensors for pyro-metallurgical processes is an analytical challenge, mainly due to adverse environmental conditions, high spectral interferences and multiphase (molten and gas) reactions. This work demonstrates the suitability of stand-off LIBS (ST-LIBS) for real time monitoring of the desulfurization of blister copper which is carried out in molten phase. Here sulfur is removed by the formation of SO2 by supplying oxygen in molten phase. Using ST-LIBS the relative emission intensities of Cu(I) at 351.06 nm, O at 777.34 nm and S at 921.29 nm in both molten and gaseous phase were considered simultaneously during the process. This was possible only by the use high energy laser pulse over up to 270 mJ per pulse. In the case of copper, the selection of emission lines was assessed considering non-linear behavior, which is caused by self-absorption. For the first time, real time determination of sulfur in ppm range is reported by ST-LIBS using low sensitive lines from the NIR region. These results were validated with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) as gold standard method. The analytical information obtained by LIBS can precisely determine the critical end-point of the desulfurization where the removal of sulfur is finished, and copper started to oxidize. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Ashwin Kumar Myakalwar, Claudio Sandoval, Benjamín Sepúlveda, Rodrigo Fuentes, Roberto Parra, Eduardo Balladares, Alejandro Vásquez, Daniel Sbarbaro, Jorge Yáñez. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for monitoring the molten phase desulfurization process of blister copper. Analytica chimica acta. 2021 Sep 15;1178:338805

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    PMID: 34482864

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