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Endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is a forest-like structure, covering the lumen side of blood vessel walls. EG is exposed to the mechanical forces of blood flow, mainly shear, and closely associated with vascular regulation, health, diseases, and therapies. One hallmark function of the EG is mechanotransduction, which means the EG senses the mechanical signals from the blood flow and then transmits the signals into the cells. Using numerical modelling methods or in silico experiments to investigate EG-related topics has gained increasing momentum in recent years, thanks to tremendous progress in supercomputing. Numerical modelling and simulation allows certain very specific or even extreme conditions to be fulfilled, which provides new insights and complements experimental observations. This mini review examines the application of numerical methods in EG-related studies, focusing on how computer simulation contributes to the understanding of EG as a mechanotransducer. The numerical methods covered in this review include macroscopic (i.e., continuum-based), mesoscopic [e.g., lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD)] and microscopic [e.g., molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) methods]. Accounting for the emerging trends in artificial intelligence and the advent of exascale computing, the future of numerical simulation for EG-related problems is also contemplated. Copyright © 2021 Jiang, Luo and Ventikos.

Citation

Xi Zhuo Jiang, Kai H Luo, Yiannis Ventikos. Understanding the Role of Endothelial Glycocalyx in Mechanotransduction via Computational Simulation: A Mini Review. Frontiers in cell and developmental biology. 2021;9:732815


PMID: 34485313

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