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    Over the past few decades, eukaryotic linear genomes and epigenomes have been widely and extensively studied for understanding gene expression regulation. More recently, the three-dimensional (3D) chromatin organization was found to be important for determining genome functionality, finely tuning physiological processes for appropriate cellular responses. With the development of visualization techniques and chromatin conformation capture (3C)-based techniques, increasing evidence indicates that chromosomal architecture characteristics and chromatin domains with different epigenetic modifications in the nucleus are correlated with transcriptional activities. Subsequent studies have further explored the intricate interplay between 3D genome organization and the function of interacting regions. In this review, we summarize spatial distribution patterns of chromatin, including chromatin positioning, configurations and domains, with a particular focus on the effect of a unique form of interaction between varieties of factors that shape the 3D genome conformation in plants. We further discuss the methods, advantages and limitations of various 3C-based techniques, highlighting the applications of these technologies in plants to identify chromatin domains, and address their dynamic changes and functional implications in evolution, and adaptation to development and changing environmental conditions. Moreover, the future implications and emerging research directions of 3D genome organization are discussed. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.


    Xinxin Zhang, Tianzuo Wang. Plant 3D Chromatin Organization: Important Insights from Chromosome Conformation Capture Analyses of the Last 10 Years. Plant & cell physiology. 2021 Dec 10;62(11):1648-1661

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    PMID: 34486654

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