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In this work, we elucidated the interactions between Myceliophthora thermophila laccase and deep eutectic solvent (DES) by crystallographic and kinetics analyses. Four types of DESs with different hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and hydrogen bond donor (HBD), including lactic acid: betaine, glycerol: choline chloride, lactic acid: choline chloride and glycerol: betaine was used. The results revealed that different DES have different effects on laccase activity. Lactic acid-betaine (2:1) DES has shown to enhance laccase activity up to 300 % at a concentration ranged from 2% to 8% v/v, while glycerol: choline chloride and lactic acid: choline chloride DES choline chloride-based DES have found to possess inhibitory effects on laccase under the same concentration range. Detailed kinetic study showed that glycerol: choline chloride DES is a S-parabolic-I-parabolic mixed non-competitive inhibitor, where conformational changes can occur. The crystal structures of laccase with lactic acid: choline chloride DES (LCDES) were obtained at 1.6 Å. Crystallographic analysis suggested that the addition of LCDES causes changes in the laccase active site, but the increase in water molecules observed in the resulting crystal prevented laccase from experiencing drastic structural change. Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies were also applied to determine the effects of DES on the structural conformation of laccase. The results have confirmed that the presence of DES can trigger changes in the local environments of the amino acids in the active site of laccase which contributes to the changes in its activity and stability. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Jou Chin Chan, Bixia Zhang, Michael Martinez, Balaganesh Kuruba, James Brozik, ChulHee Kang, Xiao Zhang. Structural studies of Myceliophthora Thermophila Laccase in the presence of deep eutectic solvents. Enzyme and microbial technology. 2021 Oct;150:109890

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PMID: 34489043

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