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This paper investigates the impact of CO2 emissions, air pollution (PM2.5) exposure, foreign remittances, energy consumption, renewable energy consumption, trade openness, and gross domestic product per capita on health expenditure in a panel of the 27 highest emitting countries from 2000 to 2019. Focusing on objectives, panel ARDL, and dynamic simulated ARDL models are used to examine the short-run and long-run impact of the variables on health expenditure. An asymmetric or nonlinear ARDL model is used to test the asymmetric effect of CO2 emissions, air pollution exposure, and foreign remittance inflows on health expenditure. The results show that environment-degrading factors, remittances, and GDP per capita significantly impact health expenditure. There is an asymmetric effect of remittances, CO2 emissions, and air pollution (PM2.5) exposure on health expenditure. Based on the results, the study suggests policymakers should make policies regarding environment-degrading elements as these factors cause huge increases in health spending in a country. Consumption of renewable energy helps reduce health expenditure as it does not cause environmental degradation, irrespective of other forms of energy, and it is suggested that policies relating to foreign remittance inflows should be encouraged and made efficient. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

Citation

Ghulam Mujtaba, Saira Ashfaq. The impact of environment degrading factors and remittances on health expenditure: an asymmetric ARDL and dynamic simulated ARDL approach. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2022 Feb;29(6):8560-8576

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PMID: 34494188

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