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WHO defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." We coined and defined suboptimal health status (SHS) as a subclinical, reversible stage of the pre-chronic disease. SHS is a physical state between health and disease, characterized by health complaints, general weakness, chronic fatigue, and low energy levels. We have developed an instrument to measure SHS, Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25), a self-reported survey assessing five health components that has been validated in various ethnical populations. Our studies suggest that SHS is associated with the major components of cardiovascular health and the early onset of metabolic diseases. Besides subjective measure of health (SHS), glycans are conceived as objective biomarkers of SHS. Glycans are complex and branching carbohydrate moieties attached to proteins, participating in inflammatory regulation and chronic disease pathogenesis. We have been investigating the role of glycans and SHS in multiple cardiometabolic diseases in different ethnical populations (African, Chinese, and Caucasian). Here we present case studies to prove that a combination of subjective health measure (SHS) with objective health measure (glycans) represents a window of opportunity to halt or reverse the progression of chronic diseases. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


Xueqing Wang, Zhaohua Zhong, Lois Balmer, Wei Wang. Glycosylation Profiling as a Biomarker of Suboptimal Health Status for Chronic Disease Stratification. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2021;1325:321-339

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PMID: 34495543

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