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Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting approximately 0.5-3% of the population in the developed world. Individuals with ID exhibit deficits in intelligence, impaired adaptive behavior and often visual impairments. Cytoplasmic fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1)-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2) is an interacting partner of the FMR protein, whose loss results in fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited cause of ID. Recently, CYFIP2 variants have been found in patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, developmental delay and ID. Such individuals often exhibit visual impairments; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of Cyfip2 in retinal and visual functions by generating and analyzing Cyfip2 conditional knockout (CKO) mice. While we found no major differences in the layer structures and cell compositions between the control and Cyfip2 CKO retinas, a subset of genes associated with the transporter and channel activities was differentially expressed in Cyfip2 CKO retinas than in the controls. Multi-electrode array recordings showed more sustained and stronger responses to positive flashes of the ON ganglion cells in the Cyfip2 CKO retina than in the controls, although electroretinogram analysis revealed that Cyfip2 deficiency unaffected the photoreceptor and ON bipolar cell functions. Furthermore, analysis of initial and late phase optokinetic responses demonstrated that Cyfip2 deficiency impaired the visual function at the organismal level. Together, our results shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying the visual impairments observed in individuals with CYFIP2 variants and, more generally, in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, including ID. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:


Taro Chaya, Hiroshi Ishikane, Leah R Varner, Yuko Sugita, Yamato Maeda, Ryotaro Tsutsumi, Daisuke Motooka, Daisuke Okuzaki, Takahisa Furukawa. Deficiency of the neurodevelopmental disorder-associated gene Cyfip2 alters the retinal ganglion cell properties and visual acuity. Human molecular genetics. 2022 Feb 21;31(4):535-547

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PMID: 34508581

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