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    Hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) and Hb Pakse' (PS) are the common non-deletional α+-thalassemia found in Thailand. These two variants can cause severe thalassemia syndromes, especially in fetus and neonate. Molecular diagnosis is the only confirmatory method because Hb CS and Hb PS are usually missed by routine screening and Hb analysis. Therefore, we aimed to develop rapid direct PCR for the diagnosis of Hb CS and PS genes. Multiplex direct PCR assays for identifying the Hb CS and PS genes in whole blood (WB) and amniotic fluid (AF) specimens were developed. The assays were firstly validated on 290 unrelated whole blood specimens. Hb CS and PS carriers were identified in 67 (23.1%) and 6 (2.1%) cases, respectively. A 100% concordant result as compared to routine PCR assay was observed. The direct PCR assays have been applied successfully for prenatal diagnosis in two families. The result showed that the fetuses were affected by homozygous Hb CS and compound heterozygous Hb CS/Hb PS. Accurate prenatal diagnosis of these families was observed using the newly developed assays. These assays should be applicable in routine thalassemia diagnostics as well as in the large-scale screening of Hb CS and PS in the region.


    Phongsathorn Wichian, Supawadee Yamsri, Attawut Chaibunruang, Cholthicha KerdKaew, Dhanawan Thongsee, Hataichanok Srivorakun, Supan Fucharoen. Direct PCR assays without DNA extraction for rapid detection of hemoglobin Constant Spring and Pakse' genes: application for carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation. 2021 Nov;81(7):557-563

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    PMID: 34524047

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