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Citrus fruits are consumed in large quantities worldwide due to their attractive aromas and taste, as well as their high nutritional values and various health-promoting effects, which are due to their abundance of nutrients and bioactives. In addition to water, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers are important nutrients in citrus, providing them with high nutritional values. Citrus fruits are also rich in various bioactives such as flavonoids, essential oils, carotenoids, limonoids, and synephrines, which protect from various ailments, including cancer and inflammatory, digestive, and cardiovascular diseases. The composition and content of nutrients and bioactives differ significantly among citrus varieties, fruit parts, and growth stages. To better understand the nutrient and bioactive profiles of citrus fruits and provide guidance for the utilization of high-value citrus resources, this review systematically summarizes the nutrients and bioactives in citrus fruit, including their contents, structural characteristics, and potential health benefits. We also explore the composition variation in different citrus varieties, fruits parts, and growth stages, as well as their health-promoting effects and applications.


Xingmiao Lu, Chengying Zhao, Huan Shi, Yongcheng Liao, Fei Xu, Hengjun Du, Hang Xiao, Jinkai Zheng. Nutrients and bioactives in citrus fruits: Different citrus varieties, fruit parts, and growth stages. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2023;63(14):2018-2041

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PMID: 34609268

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