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    Fog is an important atmospheric phenomenon highly relevant to ecosystems and/or the environment. Two essential prerequisites of fog formation are the presence of fog condensation nuclei and water in the atmosphere. The aim of our study was to examine in detail how fog occurrence is influenced by water areas in the immediate vicinity of the fog observation site. We have used as input data long-term observations on fog occurrence measured at 56 professional meteorological stations in Romania in 1981-2017 and GIS-derived information on water areas and on two topographical indices, TWI and TPI, in the neighbourhood of these stations. We formulated three alternative models of different complexity based on a semiparametric generalised additive logistic model for the probability of fog occurrence with potentially nonlinear, smooth effects modelled via penalised splines. A radius of 9 km appeared to be the most influential when considering the water area in a circle around the fog observation station. Based on our results, we concluded that (i) the water area in the vicinity of the station is a factor influencing fog occurrence, (ii) the water's effect differs according to water type (freshwater or seawater proximity), and (iii) GIS-derived topographical indices are informative for the explanation of fog occurrence and their inclusion enhanced the fit of the models substantially. Our findings, based on a reliable long-term data set of fog occurrence and recent GIS-derived data, explored by a relevant statistical approach will enhance further considerations related to fog formation and its environmental consequences. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Iva Hůnová, Marek Brabec, Jan Geletič, Marek Malý, Alexandru Dumitrescu. Local fresh- and sea-water effects on fog occurrence. The Science of the total environment. 2022 Feb 10;807(Pt 2):150799

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    PMID: 34626626

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