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    Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively eliminates respiratory (e.g., phrenic) motor neurons, and mimics motor neuron death and respiratory deficits observed in rat models of neuromuscular diseases. Additionally, microglial density increases in the phrenic motor nucleus following CTB-SAP. This CTB-SAP rodent model allows us to study the impact of motor neuron death on the output of surviving phrenic motor neurons, and the underlying mechanisms that contribute to enhancing or constraining their output at 7 days (d) or 28d post-CTB-SAP injection. 7d CTB-SAP rats elicit enhanced phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) through the Gs-pathway (inflammation-resistant in naïve rats), while pLTF is elicited though the Gq-pathway (inflammation-sensitive in naïve rats) in control and 28d CTB-SAP rats. In 7d and 28d male CTB-SAP rats and controls, we evaluated the effect of cyclooxygenase-1/2 enzymes on pLTF by delivery of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen (IP), and we hypothesized that pLTF would be unaffected by ketoprofen in 7d CTB-SAP rats, but pLTF would be enhanced in 28d CTB-SAP rats. In anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated rats, pLTF was surprisingly attenuated in 7d CTB-SAP rats and enhanced in 28d CTB-SAP rats (both p < 0.05) following ketoprofen delivery. Additionally in CTB-SAP rats: 1) microglia were more amoeboid in the phrenic motor nucleus; and 2) cervical spinal inflammatory-associated factor expression (TNF-α, BDNF, and IL-10) was increased vs. controls in the absence of ketoprofen (p < 0.05). Following ketoprofen delivery, TNF-α and IL-10 expression was decreased back to control levels, while BDNF expression was differentially affected over the course of motor neuron death in CTB-SAP rats. This study furthers our understanding of factors (e.g., cyclooxygenase-1/2-induced inflammation) that contribute to enhancing or constraining pLTF and its implications for breathing following respiratory motor neuron death. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Lauren F Borkowski, Amy N Keilholz, Catherine L Smith, Kaylie A Canda, Nicole L Nichols. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen) delivery differentially impacts phrenic long-term facilitation in rats with motor neuron death induced by intrapleural CTB-SAP injections. Experimental neurology. 2022 Jan;347:113892

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    PMID: 34634309

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