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Ferroptosis is a recently recognized process of cell death characterized by accumulation of iron-dependent lipid peroxides. Herein, we demonstrate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) inhibits ferroptosis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from cysteine/glutamate transporter (xCT)-knockout mice. Activation of PPARδ by the specific ligand GW501516 led to a dose-dependent decrease in ferroptotic cell death triggered by xCT deficiency, along with decreased levels of intracellular iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation. These effects of GW501516 were abolished by PPARδ-targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the PPARδ inhibitor GSK0660, indicating that PPARδ inhibits xCT deficiency-induced ferroptosis. In addition, GW501516-activated PPARδ time- and dose-dependently upregulated catalase expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. This PPARδ-mediated upregulation of catalase was markedly attenuated in cells treated with PPARδ-targeting siRNA and GSK0660, indicating that expression of catalase is dependent on PPARδ. Consistently, the effects of GW501516 on ferroptosis of xCT-deficient MEFs were counteracted in the presence of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, a specific inhibitor of catalase, suggesting that catalase is essential for the effect of PPARδ on ferroptosis triggered by xCT deficiency. GW501516-activated PPARδ stabilized peroxisomes through catalase upregulation by targeting peroxisomal hydrogen peroxide-mediated lysosomal rupture, which led to ferroptosis of xCT-deficient MEFs. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PPARδ modulates ferroptotic signals in xCT-deficient MEFs by regulating catalase expression. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.


Jung Seok Hwang, Eunsu Kim, Hyuk Gyoon Lee, Won Jin Lee, Jun Pil Won, Jinwoo Hur, Junichi Fujii, Han Geuk Seo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ rescues xCT-deficient cells from ferroptosis by targeting peroxisomes. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2021 Nov;143:112223

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PMID: 34649350

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